The US government refused to bail out Lehman Brothers, which was finding it impossible to roll over its borrowings in the markets.
The Wall Street bank was, instead, allowed to go bust.
That failure of a systemically-important financial institution with some $700bn (£538bn) of liabilities created a seismic shock to the entire global financial system. The global money markets froze, and banks and insurance companies in most of the developed world also suddenly found they could not borrow either.
The chair of the Federal Reserve (the US’ central bank), Ben Bernanke, subsequently called it “the worst financial crisis in global history”.
Central banks were forced to lend to banks on a colossal scale in order to prevent a cascade of financial sector bankruptcies of institutions even bigger than Lehman. Such a general collapse would have meant, all around the world, wages not being paid, cash machines not operating and, in all likelihood, total panic.
Quote source：Financial crisis 2008
The Greek government-debt crisis (also known as the Greek Depression) was the sovereign debt crisis faced by Greece in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08. Widely known in the country as The Crisis, it reached the populace as a series of sudden reforms and austerity measures that led to impoverishment and loss of income and property, as well as a small-scale humanitarian crisis. In all, the Greek economy suffered the longest recession of any advanced capitalist economy to date, overtaking the US Great Depression. As a result, the Greek political system has been upended, social exclusion increased, and hundreds of thousands of well-educated Greeks left the country.
Dennis Gartman told CNBC the Swiss decision Thursday to abandon a key part of its monetary policy is the worst central bank move he’s ever seen.
“This really is I think a silly decision on their part and it has inflicted enormous losses across the world to a great number of people,” the editor of the Gartman Letter said in a “Squawk Box” interview.
The Swiss franc rose nearly 30 percent against the euro after the Swiss National Bank’s announcement that it would remove a 3-year-old cap of 1.20 francs per euro.
Quote source：What the Swiss franc shock means for markets-CNBC
Strictly speaking, “China shock” occurred in June and August 2015, January 2016.
China’s stock market has fallen sharply over recent weeks despite measures by officials in Beijing aimed at calming investors’ jitters and shoring up global confidence in the country’s slowing economy.
Shares in China had soared 150% in the 12 months to mid-June as individual investors piled into the rising market, often borrowing heavily to do so. But chiming with warnings that shares were overvalued and the signs of an economic slowdown, the momentum came to a shuddering halt when shares hit a seven-year peak.
Following another plunge on what was dubbed “Black Monday”, China’s stock markets have now given up all their gains for the year.
China’s shock move to devalue its currency, the yuan, this month only served to intensify worries about the world’s second-largest economy.
Shares around the world followed China’s stock markets lower. About £74bn was wiped off the value of the FTSE 100 and on Wall Street, the Dow Jones Industrial Average slumped by a record of more than 1,000 points at one stage.
Commodities such as crude oil and copper have also tumbled to multi-year lows as investors take fright over signs of waning demand in the world’s leading consumer of raw materials.
The currencies of emerging Asian economies have weakened as investors drop those assets seen as riskier to hold. But investments perceived as safe havens in times of trouble, such as gold and some government bonds, are in demand.
Quote source：The Guardian